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Working as a Senior Fullstack Developer at Yummy Publishing (previously valantic, Sulu and MASSIVE ART),
lecturing at the Vorarlberg University of Applied Sciences,
founded and co-organizing the VlbgWebDev meetup,
used to co-organize AgentConf.

Creating highly customizable HTML presentations with markdown and pandoc

presentations, html, markdown, pandoc, graphviz

Update 2021-02-28: Instead of just having the template I have extracted a markdown-presentation package, which is used by the accordingly updated presentation-template. This allows to adjust styling just once and have it in all my presentations, after updating the package using git submodules. I also got rid of the graphviz integration and adjusted the Makefile, so that dot is only used if the files changed since the last generation, which allowed to shorten the build time by a lot if diagrams have already been generated. Read more about this extraction and the improved build step in another blog.

Warning: This is a rather long blog post explaining also some details. If you are just interested in the end result you might want to jump the the conclusion right away

I love markdown. It’s super easy to write, and also very easy to read, making it a great tool to write e.g. blogs like this one. Since markdown is written using plain text files, it has another bunch of advantages too:

I have especially fallen in love with pandoc, so that I ended up also writing my master thesis using markdown and pandoc. And of course as a daily GitHub user I am using markdown a lot. It is used when writing issues, PRs, comment on any of these things and even in repositories markdown files are parsed and shown nicely formatted. GitHub has even created its own flavour of markdown and a guide on mastering markdown, another indicator of the importance of this language to this company.

Then I stumbled upon this tweet of Max Stoiber, which sounded interesting. A NPM package that allows to write slides in markdown and afterwards serve them via a webserver using Gatsby under the hood.

How to quickly create a talk from scratch 🔥

  1. Write outline with markdown
  2. Install mdx-deck by @jxnblk
  3. Add — and in the right places to split outline into slides

Done! It does not get faster than presenting your outline 💯

— Max Stoiber (@mxstbr) December 1, 2019

First steps with mdx-deck and its obstacles

That sounded great, so I decided to give it a try. The setup went really smooth, and it didn’t take very long to create the first slides. There was an annoying issue that crashed the watch mode, but they seemed to be working on that, so I still decided to give it a try and used it to create the slides for a React lecture I am currently giving. It worked quite well at the start, but it always felt a little bit strange… Probably the weirdest thing for me as a minimalist was that a lot of functionality required to put some JavaScript into the markdown file, which I so desperately wanted to keep clean:

The pure concept of having any kind of code in a human-readable file format — except if the code itself is what you are writing about — gave me a very bad gut feeling. It eliminated 2 out of 3 advantages I initially mentioned! However, I accepted it for quite some time, but then more issues piled up:

All of this was very annoying, but embedding images was the final straw. I wanted to do it the markdown way:

![some image caption](/path/to/image)

But that does not seem to work with mdx-deck. A tool for preparing presentation slides, that did not even support embedding images? To be fair, there was a workaround suggested, but importing the image and writing the img tag on my own in my markdown file was not acceptable to me. I’ve had accepted (for some reasons I don’t understand anymore) the use of JavaScript in other places mentioned above, but using JavaScript to embed an image was just too much for me.

As a JavaScript developer it felt great to use the tools we are using every day to also deliver presentations. But at this point it just seemed way to bloated for a relatively easy task. And then it hit my mind: Why don’t I use pandoc, which I also liked when writing my thesis? So I took about 1.5 hours (right before my lecture) and decided to give it a try. And that was enough time to come up with a solution, that was almost as good as mdx-deck, but I didn’t have to pollute my markdown with JavaScript code. As a nice side effect the complete build of the same presentation takes now 300ms instead of almost 30s (sic!). Minimalism wins again!

Using plain markdown, pandoc and a few lines of code instead

I’ve first had a quick look at the pandoc documentation and found a section about producing slide shows. It supports different ways of creating slide shows, but none of them suited me for different reasons. Especially that most of them couldn’t be installed via a package manager was odd. And I certainly didn’t want to own the code and copy it into my repository. Additionally, when you think about it, producing a HTML slide show is not very hard. Basically it is styling it in some way that a slide fits exactly the size of the screen, and two event handlers to navigate to the next or previous slides. So I’ve decided to build that on my own and published it as a presentation-template on GitHub. I am still going to run through the most important points.

First of all I had to convert the file I called slides.md written using pandoc’s flavour of markdown to HTML. This is as easy as executing the following command — assuming you have pandoc already installed:

    -o slides.html\
    -c slides.css\
    -A slides_before_body.html

The pandoc command takes the name of the markdown file as first parameter, and will automatically recognize to which format it should be converted by checking the file extension of the -o option representing the output file. Usually pandoc would only create a document fragment, but by adding the -s flag it will also include everything a proper HTML document needs, like html, head and body tags. In order to distribute the file without much hassle I have added the --self-contained flag, which will cause to inline all styles and scripts instead of just referencing them. The --section-divs will wrap every header in markdown in a section tag along with its content. So everything until the next heading of the same level will be included in that section. This is an enormous help when trying to style the presentation! Finally the -c option refers to the file containing the CSS, which is called slides.css in my case and does not contain anything except for plain old CSS, and the -A option to inject another HTML file called slides_before_body.html right before the closing body tag. All this HTML file contains is a few lines of JavaScript, which enable the user of the presentation to go back and forth using the arrow keys. For this it will collect all section tags with an id, so that they can be used as an anchor by just setting the fragment of the URL. It will also add an empty fragment as the first available fragment, because the title slide does not get it’s own section.

const availableSlides = [...document.querySelectorAll('section[id]')]
    .map((element) => '#' + element.id);

function goToSlide(number) {
    if (availableSlides[number]) {
        location = availableSlides[number];

document.addEventListener('keydown', function(event) {
    const currentSlide = availableSlides.findIndex(
        (availableSlide) => availableSlide === (location.hash || '#')

    switch (event.key) {
        case 'ArrowLeft':
            goToSlide(currentSlide - 1);
        case 'ArrowRight':
            goToSlide(currentSlide + 1);

So by just using three different files ( slides.md, slides.css and slides_before_body.html) and the pandoc command we already have a pretty nice HTML presentation, which — unless for the HTML markup at which pandoc does an excellent job — we have full control over. There is no third party script adding some inline styles that causes troubles when styling the presentation, and building the presentation is a matter of a few hundreds milliseconds instead of waiting for half a minute. This even makes the watch task obsolete, especially because it is also easily possible to grasp the structure of the presentation when looking at the markdown source as well.

I could have stopped there, but there was one more thing I was really keen on including into my presentation-template, so that I digged bit deeper and invested about 2 more hours: I wanted to be able to include diagrams in my markdown file by using the dot language of graphviz. You can imagine the dot language to be the markdown of diagrams, using an easy-to-write and easy-to-read syntax to describe diagrams. Since it is so easy-to-read, it felt like the perfect candidate for being embedded in markdown. I imagined that somehow like this:

## My slide using a SVG diagram

digraph G {
    A -> C
    A -> D
    B -> E
    B -> F

And after asking on StackOverflow if this was possible, I was redirected to the diagram-generator lua-filter. It looked very promising, but it did a little bit more than I needed, and since I like to keep things minimal I’ve copied it and adjusted it:

local dotPath = os.getenv("DOT") or "dot"

local filetype = "svg"
local mimetype = "image/svg+xml"

local function graphviz(code, filetype)
    return pandoc.pipe(dotPath, {"-T" .. filetype}, code)

function CodeBlock(block)
    local converters = {
        graphviz = graphviz,

    local img_converter = converters[block.classes[1]]
    if not img_converter then
      return nil

    local success, img = pcall(img_converter, block.text, filetype)

    if not success then
        error 'Image conversion failed. Aborting.'

    return pandoc.RawBlock('html', img)

return {
    {CodeBlock = CodeBlock},

This code will convert all fenced code blocks with the graphviz annotation you’ve seen in my example above into a SVG string, which in turn can be embedded in the HTML element. Awesome!

All that was left to do was to include this filter in the pandoc command using the --lua-filter option:

    -o slides.html\
    -c slides.css\
    -A slides_before_body.html

Since this command is not that rememberable I went old school and put it into a Makefile. Writing such a Makefile is not that hard, and make is installed on almost every linux machine anyway.


So in conclusion it took me maybe 4 hours to find solution, which is probably less time I already tried to work around some issues of mdx-deck. Summarized this solution also has other advantages:

I have to admit that I had to include a few lines of code in the presentation-template, but it is not much. And, more importantly, it is outside of my markdown file, and that’s where it belongs.

Feel free to have a look at my presentation-template and adjust it to your needs.